A witness is a person who can give evidence at a hearing. An expert witness has special knowledge and gives evidence based on that knowledge.
A witness statement is a person’s account of the facts in a case. It is a written summary of the evidence of a witness.
A witness should have personal knowledge of the issues in the case, or expertise about the dispute. Often, the parties to the proceedings are witnesses in their own case and should prepare a witness statement.
When a witness statement is given
ACAT may ask the parties in a case to provide statements that they will rely on at the hearing. Parties will be given a timeframe in which to prepare or get a witness statement. The witness statement must be lodged with ACAT and a copy given to any other party in the case (unless ACAT has ordered otherwise).
Preparing a witness statement
If you are a witness, you can use the witness statement template [DOC 29KB] to prepare a statement. This template also has tips for preparing your statement.
When completing the witness statement, it is important to include:
- your name, address, occupation and telephone number
- the evidence to be given set out in a logical order
- labelled attachments if you refer to documents in your statement
- the date and your signature
- numbered paragraphs and pages for easy reference.
Each party should consider who needs to provide a witness statement. This involves considering what needs to be proven in the case and responding to any issues that have been raised by the other party.
Giving evidence at a hearing
At a hearing a witness may:
- be required to swear or affirm that the evidence they will give is true and correct
- be asked questions by ACAT and both parties.
Witnesses who provide a witness statement need to be available to give evidence at a hearing at ACAT. Sometimes a witness will ask to give evidence by telephone and ACAT will consider whether or not to approve this request.
A party may need to take steps to make sure that a witness will attend a hearing, such as requesting a subpoena. We can organise assistance for witnesses, such as an interpreter, hearing loop or wheelchair access.
If you are a witness and you want to give evidence by telephone, either you or a party in the case will need to make a request, which will be considered by ACAT.
An expert is a person with experience, through practice and education, in a particular field.
Parties may ask an expert to provide a report about the issues in a case. An expert witness has an overriding duty to assist ACAT impartially on matters in the expert’s area of expertise.
The expert’s witness statement should set out the expert’s qualifications and experience, and explain how they are able to comment on the issues before ACAT.
Experts must abide by ACAT’s Expert Witness Code of Conduct.
Find out more about:
ACT Civil and Administrative TribunalA tribunal established under the ACT Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2008. It may also be referred to as ACAT or Tribunal.
Administrative reviewACAT has jurisdiction to review some administrative decisions made by the ACT Government. Find out about Review of ACT Government decisions.
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)Also known as dispute resolution. This is a way of resolving disputes without a formal hearing. It may involve a preliminary conference or mediation. ADR is used to help parties resolve cases by agreement.
AnorMeans ‘and another’. This term is generally used to name parties to proceedings when there is more than one applicant or respondent.
Appeal TribunalA tribunal constituted under section 81 of the ACT Civil and Administrative Tribunal 2008 to review a decision of the tribunal (not all ACAT decisions are appealable at ACAT – you may need to go to the Supreme Court).
AppellantThe individual or company that appeals an ACAT decision.
Authorising lawsA law that says an application (including referrals) may be made to ACAT. An authorising law may also set out the powers ACAT has in a case. Also see ‘jurisdiction’.
ApplicantThe individual or company that brings a case to ACAT, usually by making an application.
Calling a witnessA party or their representative will ‘call a witness’ at an ACAT hearing when they ask a witness to give evidence.
CaseAlso known as a matter, dispute, application or referral. Cases come to ACAT when ACAT has jurisdiction (power) to make a decision.
Cross-examinationThe process of asking a witness questions to test or check the evidence that the witness has given to ACAT.
Deliver a decisionAlso ‘handing down a decision’. This is giving a decision about an ACAT case. It may be done verbally or in writing (or both).
DirectionsInstructions that set out what each party must do (and when), often to prepare a case for hearing.
Directions hearingA short hearing where an ACAT Member or Registrar decides how to manage a case and what needs to be done before a hearing. Find out about directions hearings.
Ex parte orderAn order made by ACAT where one or more parties were not present.
Expert reportA written report from an expert that may be used as evidence.
Expert witnessA person with specialised knowledge based on their training, study or experience. An expert can give evidence at a hearing. Find out more about witness statements.
Final directions hearingSometimes ACAT will hold a final directions hearing prior to the final hearing of an application. The purpose is to make sure the case is ready to go to a hearing and give the parties a chance to ask questions about the hearing process.
Handed upGiving documents to an ACAT Member or Registrar in a hearing.
In chambersWhen ACAT considers something without holding a hearing.
Joined party (joined/joinder)A party who was not originally a party to the dispute but has later been added to the case.
JurisdictionACAT’s authority (power) to deal with, hear and decide applications (cases).
LeaveIf someone asks for leave, they are usually asking for permission to do something.
List (or listing)A schedule (or list) of cases to be heard at ACAT each day.
Listing noticeA letter or written document from ACAT that sets out when a conference, mediation or hearing is scheduled at ACAT.
MediationA private meeting where parties discuss ways to resolve their dispute, with the help of an impartial mediator (who is also an ACAT Member or Registrar). It is held under section 35 of the ACT Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2008.
Non-publication and/or non-disclosure orderAlso called a ‘suppression order’. It is an order that requires certain information not to be published or disclosed. It is made under section 39 of the ACT Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2008. Find out about public hearings and confidentiality.
Opening statementUsually means a statement made at the beginning of a hearing to outline the key points in the case. Sometimes parties are asked to give an opening statement at a mediation or preliminary conference.
Originating applicationAn application that starts an ACAT case.
Party or partiesAn individual or company directly involved in an ACAT case, for example an applicant or respondent. Find out how to identify and name parties.
Preliminary conferenceA private meeting where parties discuss ways to resolve their dispute with the help of an ACAT Member or Registrar. See section 33 of the ACT Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2008. ACAT has different types of preliminary conferences.
RegistryThe administrative section of ACAT that accepts documents lodged by parties, handles enquiries and provides support for case management.
RepresentativeA person who represents or advocates for an individual or company at a conference, mediation or hearing at ACAT. For example, a legal practitioner or an attorney appointed under a general power of attorney.
Reserved decisionWhen an ACAT Member or Registrar reserves a decision (at the end of a hearing), this means they will give their decision later, either verbally or in writing (sometimes both).
RespondentThe party (or parties) against whom orders or relief is sought.
Short service orderAn order that authorises a shorter time for service (than the time otherwise required).
Serve/serviceA person who can give evidence at a hearing. Find out about witness statements.
Statement of reasonsA document that explains why ACAT made an order in a case. It sets out the law relied on by an ACAT Member or Registrar and explains how the law was applied to the facts of the case. You can request a written statement of reasons within 14 days after an order is made. Find out about statement of reasons.
StayAn order for a particular action (or decision) to be put on hold or suspended for a period of time.
SubmissionA document that sets out your side of a case or dispute and the relevant law. It is presented to ACAT either in writing, verbally or both. Find out about submissions.
SubpoenaRequires a person to appear at ACAT to give evidence or provide documents (or both). Find out about subpoenas.
Substituted service orderAn order that says how a party is to be served with an application or other documents related to the proceedings. In a civil dispute or a rental dispute, an applicant will need to consider asking for a substituted service order if they do not have a physical address for the respondent. Find out about lodging and serving documents.
WitnessA person who can give evidence at a hearing. Find out about witness statements.